Nov 142015
 
Chakrasana

CREATING RIGHT CONDITIONS FOR YOGA

Chakrasana

Yoga is about discovering your real inner self, about re-inventing or re-designing yourself. To achieve that, right conditions for Yoga have to be there. Yoga means you are moving towards expanding your consciousness, towards connecting yourself with the Super Consciousness or Super Intelligence. You have to create the necessary atmosphere to let this happen. When you were created the first time, it was not your choice – it happened from memory stored in inherited DNA! But now that you are reinventing yourself through Yoga, you can choose to go step-by-step, moving towards how you want yourself to be.

You expand your consciousness through Yoga. I’ve been asked many times how to do that – well, you don’t have to be explained when you are ready! This is something to be experienced. When you connect with the source of creation, you practically connect with a huge source of intelligence, the kind of intelligence that you won’t think is possible, which we mortals perceive as genius. To allow this to happen, there should be no obstacles. Some of the common obstacles can be removed easily. The Yoga teachings and methodology provided here have been perfected over thousands of years not only to optimize the benefits, but also to reduce any dangers and risks associated with awakening Kundalini Shakti prematurely. This approach helps avoid many of the difficulties involved with the premature awakening of Kundalini that one sometimes comes across. Please follow the following advice and feel the difference.

 

Cold Water Bath

Before beginning your practice, especially in the morning, it is better to take a bath with cold water which is about five degree Celsius lower than room temperature. This will open up the pores of your skin. This is important for practicing yoga because we want the cellular and energetic structure of the body to be charged with a different dimension. Also, it washes away the physical and emotional negativity accumulated over the preceding time. Why one person seems to be far more alive than the other is essentially because of energy. Once you are charged with energy, youthfulness stays for a very long time.

Yoga Attire

Yoga is generally practiced barefoot. Clothing should generally be loose and comfortable. It is advisable to keep the shoulders and spine covered, so practicing without any covering the upper body is not recommended. This has to do with the awakening, flow and distribution of Kundalini via the 3 main energy channels (ida, pingala and sushumna) that lie in and along the spinal cord.

A blanket can be used to cover the body after Yoga, especially after meditation, during the relaxation period. Keep the body covered and warm. Most Kriyas are followed by a period of relaxation that is usually done in corpse pose (shav-asana) and during this time the body temperature tends to drop, so a blanket can be used to keep the body warm and comfortable.

Yoga With Full Awareness

Keep your full focus on what you are doing. Try to be as aware as possible of every posture and movement you are making during your practice. Check throughout your yoga session where your mind is; if it has wandered, gently bring it back and focus again on the poses and the breathing. This is the most essential requirement of yoga, regardless of whether you are a beginner or a master. In addition, if certain feelings or energies awaken within you, bring your attention to them and just observe them taking their course as you progress through your practice.

Breathing

There is no Yoga without Pranayama! Yoga significantly relies on the Science of Pranayama (breathing exercises). Unless specified otherwise, all breathing should be done through the nose. 

Jal Neti (washing the nostrils with saline water) is recommended for cleaning the nasal passageways to help maximize the benefits of pranayama.

Safety

Some Yoga Kriyas can be quite challenging and it is recommended to always do warm-ups first before doing these tough sets and asanas. There are several good easy kriyas and sets, which work very well as warm-ups to the tough kriyas. It is especially important to do spinal warm-ups as charging the cerebrospinal fluid within the spinal cord and brain assists in the flow of awakened Kundalini Shakti. Don’t overdo it. Try to walk the middle road. This goes for both – your overall practice and also for each kriya and asana you do. In other words, each exercise you do should not be too easy and not too hard, and your overall practice should be equally balanced, between being ridiculously ambitious or excessively easy. With regard to your practice, try to establish a steady, long-term daily practice, rather than doing 10 hours a day for 2 weeks and then nothing after that.

Use common sense. For the difficult asanas and exercises, ease off a little if you feel you are risking injury. Also, feel free to increase the relaxation time between exercises or reduce the time suggested for doing a particular exercise to suit your pace. Yoga practice is all about you and only you. It is not a competition. So, listen to your body and let your inner voice guide and direct you.

Yoga Teachings

It is immensely important to initially learn Yoga from a knowledgeable and experienced teacher, the Guru, who can ensure that the understanding is accurately disseminated. Safety is a big concern. If possible you should at least try to attend a few live yoga classes so that you can get a feel of the asanas and pranayamas. Guru is very important. Later on, in absence of Guru, the Guru within is always available to guide you.

Good literature and websites can also provide some guidance for practicing yoga.

When to Practice Yoga 

In general Yoga should be practiced in the early morning hours. Early morning is called Brahma-Muhurta in Sanskrit. It literally means ‘The Divine Time’. This is the time of the day when the spiritual energy on our planet is at its highest. The air at that time is fresh and contains the greatest amount of prana (cosmic life force). The mind is also fresh and unburdened with the worries of everyday life. This will help in the practice of concentration and meditation. This is the time of day when you are least likely to be distracted by the hustle and bustle of everyday life. The stomach is empty, which is necessary before practicing many of the Yoga asanas and pranayamas.

But if you can’t do your practice at that time, it is acceptable to practice at other times of the day as well. Choice and intensity of Yoga postures is better optimized to the designated time.

Where to Practice Yoga

It is important for the place where you practice Yoga to be neat, spacious and clean, but more importantly, it should be well ventilated. You can also use a fan to keep the air fresh, but make sure it is not pointed directly at you. Practicing outdoors is even better, although direct sunlight should be avoided.

Yoga Diet

Try not to eat at least 3 hours before doing your Yoga practice. While practicing yoga asanas, you should not only be on an empty stomach, your bowels should also be empty. Anything that is not the body should be out of the body if you want to move your energies beneficially. Though they act on the physical body, or the annamaya kosha, as well, Yoga practices are not mere physical exercises; they act at the energy bodies as well. To achieve that, nothing should be there other than your body. So, the food you put in or the waste you produced, both these things should be out.

Given that Yoga uses many different bandhas (body locks), pranayamas (breathing exercises), asanas and vigorous movement, you could be quite uncomfortable if your stomach or bowels are still full. 

Although Yoga in general recommends a Sattvic diet (foods that promote calmness and clarity), and not Rajasic foods (energetic foods that promote activity) or Tamasic foods (foods that promote heaviness and dull the mind), due to the nature of Yoga, including some Rajasic foods in your diet is permissible. Still it is recommended that the bulk of your diet be Sattvic. Sattvic foods are generally fresh and sweet such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, honey etc. Rajasic foods are generally spicy and stimulating, such as onions, garlic, eggs, fish, tea etc. Tamasic foods are fatty foods, stale food, meat, etc.

Yoga Kriyas are designed to force the organs, tissues, nerves and vessels to expel buried toxins out into the elimination systems of the body. So some time after any Kriyas or tough yoga set, one should drink plenty of water to help cleanse the body of the toxins and waste that have been released.

Keep Your Eyes Closed

Just closing eyes reduces 75% of alpha wave activity in brain. So, for us humans, shutting down the visual apparatus is quite important to quieten the mind. You see this world with your eyes, and you hold a lot of energy in your eyes. When eyes are closed, the outer world disappears. The eyes naturally close for any internal experience because the visual apparatus connects us with the outward. If you just close them, you can still hear, smell and feel, but much of the world is shut out. So, focus on internal experience happens best when your eyes are closed. When you’re doing Yoga, you want to internalize everything. So, keep your eyes closed during yoga.

Speaking

Not talking during the asana should not be just a norm in Yoga classes, it should be a rule! Asanas are dynamic meditation – because you are not yet capable of staying still, you’re doing something else to become meditative, that which is absolutely comfortable and stable is your asana. When your body is at ease, your mind is at ease and your energies flow freely, in complete vibrancy and balance. If you sit still, you are naturally meditative. To come to a state of natural meditation, the preparatory step is asana.

If you speak, many disturbances happen physiologically and energetically. You must never speak in postures because your focus, breath and what happens to your energy system are most important; otherwise you will disturb the system. If you have to speak, come out of asana and then do it. 

Using Mirrors/Listening to Music

Ideally, there should never be a mirror or music when you practice Hatha Yoga. This culture of using mirrors has come from body-building and gymnasia because, there, people want to admire their physical bodies. In yoga, that is not recommended at all. If you look at yogis, their physical structure is not like that of an athlete – they are quite ordinary; some are even plump! For Yogis, the only thing important to them is their consciousness which must grow. If you want to get the involvement of that which is the source of creation within you, your body, mind, and energy must be absolutely involved and aligned. And your mental focus is most important while practicing asanas.

Classical yoga demands aligning your body, mind and energy, and the innermost core. You have to give your one hundred percent for the source of creation, which we usually refer to as the divine, to yield. If you hold back or deviate a little, it will not be there for you.

Frequency of Practice

The Yoga Sutra says – sthira sukham asanam – an asana should be comfortable and stable. The goal of asana practice is to achieve a state where your asana is comfortable and stable; even if you remain in a posture for hours, it should stay the same, without eliciting any disturbances internally. That is when your perception starts expanding.

The intention of Hatha Yoga practice is to knead the body in such a way that we can remold it. So, whatever time you want to devote, should be done with one hundred percent involvement. In true spirit of Yoga, doing yoga every day or twice a week – that doesn’t really matter!

Human body is clay. Karma, or the established memory, makes it rigid. . It is because of this memory that the physical, physiological and psychological aspects becomes rigid. Through Yoga, we try to undo that. Then, you can shape it whichever way you want because the energies become fluid.

 Delve deeper into this and many more informative topics in Yoga. Please check different Yoga Education courses at SAVYJitender K Sahdev

Dr Jitender K Sahdev

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p style=”text-align: center;”>President and Director of Teaching

Please contact us to book your spot in our Yoga classes. We would love to hear any suggestions or comments that you might have. Space is limited and participation will be on a first-come-first-served basis. So, respond early to participate in this exciting, life-transforming Yoga experience. 

Oct 062015
 
SAVY Healing Yoga Classes

Introductory Yoga Pass

SAVY YOGA – BECAUSE YOU DESERVE ONLY THE BEST!

NO CONTRACTS, NO COMMITMENT, JUST YOGA!

SAVY HEALING YOGA STUDIO

BRINGS TO YOU

THE MOST AUTHENTIC YOGA

WITH MOST HEALTHFUL YOGA ROUTINES

WITH THE MOST VARIETY OF CLASSES

WITH THE MOST HEALING EFFECT

AT THE MOST AFFORDABLE PRICES

UNDER THE MOST QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED TEACHERS

IN THE MOST CARING ENVIRONMENT

 Another Incredible Offer 

$12/ Class*

Limited time offer

This offer is valid for new students for first month.

The salient features of Yoga Classes at SAVY are:

  • Comprehensive, authentic, world class teaching and knowledge-base in all aspects of Yoga
  • Authentic Ashtanaga and Vinyasa Yoga training based on true, traditional Yoga from India
  • Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhyana, Kriyas. Chakras, Kundalini Awakening, Shatkarma, Marma, Mantra etc
  • Clear, concise, to-the-point instruction and individualized care
  • One of the most qualified, experienced, international faculty, well-trained in India with excellent teaching skills
  • Yoga School with highest ranking of RYS 200, RYS 500 – we train yoga teachers up to the highest rank
  • Yoga Therapy services for all diseases available
  • Wonderful, knowledgeable, stable, regular, supportive, warm, welcoming yoga community
  • Unique, specialized yoga classes – Sukshma Yoga, Vinyasa Yoga, Deep Stretch Yoga, Yoga for Face, Meditation Classes, Sun and Moon Salutations, Pranayama etc
  • Workshops on interesting Yoga topics from time to time
  • Delve deep into the field of Yoga – Keep learning and sharing knowledge
  • Suitable time of classes
  • Small size of group classes
  • Small Class Yoga for smaller groups
  • Private sessions also available
  • Decent studio setting – enjoy the calm, serene surroundings
  • Plenty of Free Street Parking
  • Most affordable Yoga Classes

Sign up today

Let’s walk into the future together, with better health for everyone!

North London Yoga Studio

163 Concord Road London ON N6G 3H9

 

*HST applicable with all payments. Conditions apply.

 
Jan 122015
 
Face Yoga

SAVY Face Yoga Challenge

 Yoga For Face

FORGET BOTOX, FORGET ABOUT GETTING UNDER THE KNIFE

THIS IS THE ULTIMATE NATURAL FACELIFT!!!

MAKE FUNNY FACES AND GET RID OF WRINKLES AND SAGGING

CHANGE YOUR FACE, CHANGE YOUR LIFE!

YOU CAN NOW REGISTER FOR SAVY FACE YOGA CHALLENGE 

NEXT CHALLENGE STARTING IN FEBRUARY!

Yoga is a process of not only keeping the body healthy but also of enhancing one’s beauty and figure. Just by devoting some time daily for a month, any person can improve his/her natural charms. Every person in this world wishes to remain young and beautiful for ever. And each one tries to improve his/her beauty through natural as well as artificial methods.

The routine of SAVY Face Yoga Challenge is easier and exercises are more enjoyable that you can do for short periods of time, so that you can gently rebuild and boost your self esteem. For your own benefit, “tune in” to your body. This is for joyful warming up, warming down, healing and recovery. Stay within your capability and personal comfort zone. Just do it every day, and your whole body including your facial tone will improve.

You will be taught exercises followed in SAVY Yoga for Face, which is a guided course for women and men of all ages. It benefits the body, the mind and the spirit.

On a physical level, it teaches to invigorate and rejuvenate the face by strengthening muscles and oxygenating tissues. It increases face firmness and elasticity, adding volume and brightness to the skin and visibly smoothens and stretches out face wrinkles. More specifically it fills and strengths lips, cheeks, cheekbones, eyes, forehead, jaw line and the neck. It visibly reduces puffy eyes, dark circles, saggy eyelids and double chin. You will achieve a full facial workout and energize the body.

SAVY Face Yoga Challenge, is based specifically on:

  • Mukha Yoga (Face Yoga) exercises,
  • Asanas (Yoga Postures),
  • MBH (Mindfulness and Breathing-Based Healing),
  • Nada Yoga 
  • Kriyas
  • Mudras
  • Marmas (Indian Pressure Ponts), and more, 

offers immense healing potential, for the body, mind and spirit.

It can be used as support for muscle rehabilitation, to reduce minor facial asymmetries and can be adopted as an alternative or as a supplement to plastic surgery and cosmetic medical treatments.

Confront time and become the author of your face.

Join this Challenge and see the difference for yourself!

After you complete this 30 day challenge, you will feel the change. You will feel more confident about the way you look and the way you feel.

This could truly be a LIFE TRANSFORMING experience for you. Whether you are brand new to yoga or are a seasoned yoga practitioner, you will find this yoga challenge a truly rewarding experience physically, emotionally, medically, socially and spiritually.

SET ON A COURSE TO STREAMLINE YOUR FACE AND JAW-LINE IN JUST 30 DAYS

Let’s get started! You can do this!

The program will consist of a group-based practice led by a knowledgeable and experienced instructor. Here are the details:

  • Time: On week Days: 7:00 PM – 8:00 PM
  • Where:
    • Physical Location : SAVY International South London Studio at 119-D Exeter Road London ON N6L 1A4, Or
    • Online – You’ll be sent routine for each day.
  • Formats: One Month Format
  • Batches: One batch per month.
  • Commitment:
    • A firm commitment to complete the program without missing any class (except in an emergency). To underline the importance of this, you are required to sign a form stating the same at the beginning of the program.
    • Be available for photographs before and after the Challenge.
    • At the end of the one month program, continue the same practice at home or sign-up for another month. Continue this for at least 6 months.
  • Cost: Total cost is $399 for one month program.
  • Components of Program:
    • Asana (physical postures/stretching)
    • Mukha Yoga (Face Yoga)
    • Pranayama (breathing techniques)
    • Meditation
    • Self Marma Massage of important Marma Bindus
    • Nada
    • Yoga Nutrition advice based on Dosha
    • Pearls of Ancient Wisdom

The same program is also taught on one-on-one basis and online. Please book your appointment for pre-challenge consultation.

 Please check the schedule here:

Please contact us if you are interested. I would love to hear any suggestions or comments that you might have. Space is limited and participation will be on a first-come-first-served basis. So respond early to participate in this exciting, life-transforming experience.

 Dr Jitender K Sahdev

President and Director of Teaching

Your Yoga Teacher Trainer – Dr Jitender K Sahdev E-RYT 500, RCYT, RPYT, D.Sc., Ph.D.,MD, MBBS, Fellow in Surgery and Surgical Oncology, is a Yoga Therapist /Yoga Teacher in London with over 35,000 hours of Traditional Yoga teaching experience. A Surgeon by profession from India, he utilizes Yoga as a complementary therapy for optimizing the health and wellness of his clients. He trained under doyens of Yoga in India for almost four decades. He is a Yoga Therapist in Canada.

 

Note : You should check with your health care professional before starting this or any new exercise program or breathing routine. This is especially important if you have any pre-existing health conditions, such as high blood pressure, migraines or heart or lung ailments. Women who are pregnant or think they might be pregnant should consult their physician before performing any of the breathing or physical exercises.

The information contained in the program is not intended to serve as a replacement for professional medical advice. Any use of the information in these programs/ workshops is at the reader’s discretion, risk and responsibility. The studio, author and the publisher specifically disclaim any and all liability arising directly or indirectly from the use or application of any information contained herein. A health care professional should be consulted regarding your specific situation. This is an exercise program and the results may vary.

Jan 102015
 
Surya Namaskar

Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar – Yoga Fundamentals Series

SAVY Yoga has been serving the city of London and surrounding areas since 2011. To serve the people London in a better way, instead of serving some run-of-the-mill pseudo-yoga routines, we offer some very useful, true Yoga/ Pranayama routines, ranging from gentle to very challenging routines, for a beginner to an advanced student alike. Here, we bring to you a new series of classes on Yoga Fundamentals which introduce you and clarify to you the benefits of authentic traditional ashtanga Yoga.

Through demonstration, discussion and experiential movement, you will gain key understanding of proper posture and how to keep your body safe. As common sense dictates, one can function properly only if one is disease-free and is in a healthy state of body, mind and spirit. So, for us, your health and disease-free state comes first of all. We firmly believe Yoga is much beyond mere gymnastics and sauna!

London Yoga Classes at SAVY bring you the taste, values and expertise of the true traditional Ashtanga and Vinyasa Yoga from India. Inspired adherence to eight pillars or steps of yoga bestow one with a calm mind and fit body and lead one towards attaining moksha or liberation for an emancipated life. In more physical or materialistic  terms, Yoga is more than capable of keeping one physically and mentally fit and disease-free. It has become the new hot and favored way to sweat it out. Yoga Fundamentals is a step in that direction.

Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar

Sun Salutations The Sun is the source of all energy and the supporter of all life-forms. In India, it is more than just a star and Indian culture respects and worships this powerful source of energy as a deity. Surya Namaskar or Sun Salutations, an integral part of Surya Yoga, is one way Hindus have always paid respect to the “Sun god” and in turn gain enormous health benefits. Surya Namaskar, also known in English as Sun Salutation is a well-known sequence of twelve asanas. The obvious characteristic of Surya Namaskar is the fact that it exercises the entire body. The Sun Salutation is a graceful sequence of twelve postures performed as one continuous exercise. Each position is reverse of the one before, stretching the body in a different way and alternatively expanding and contracting the chest to regulate the breathing. Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar is yoga postures, breathing, mindfulness, meditation, bandhas, gaze, alignment etc – all rolled in one! It’s considered THE MOST COMPLETE EXERCISE ROUTINE! Sun Salutations or  Surya Namaskar has many benefits and if done regularly can not only help you lose flab but can also help you combat diseases. Here are a few benefits of this asana.

  • Surya Namaskar, or Sun Salutations, ideally done facing the early morning rising sun, helps our body to soak in the benefits of the rays of the sun.
  • This is the best and most complete series of asanas to improve lymphatic circulation and drainage. Hence, it improves body immunity.
  • Regular practice of this series of asanas can also help you lose the excess belly fat.
  • The postures in Surya Namaskar stretch our muscles and help make our body very flexible.
  • The moves and postures of the asana help all our internal organs function better — the various poses regulate our blood flow, benefit the digestive system and makes it more efficient.
  • It helps combat insomnia as it relaxes the body and calms the mind.
  • It helps regulate menstrual cycles and makes childbirth easier.
  • This is known to facilitate blood circulation and thereby help hair growth and prevent hair problems.
  • It reduces anxiety and restlessness and enhances our strength and vitality.
  • Surya Namaskar benefits not just adults, but kids as well.
  • From yoga point of view, it acts on Solar Plexus and regular practice of Surya Namaskar increases its size, hence increasing awareness and ‘gut feeling’ or intuition.
  • It acts on and balances all chakras and helps you achieve complete health.
  • The back and forth, up and down movements in Sun Salutations are fun and offer the opportunity to move playfully in the practice.
  • They warm up the body for the practice of more asanas.
  • Surya Namaskar improves cardiovascular function. Some studies have revealed that sun salutations provided the best overall benefit for the heart, specifically the left ventricle. For excellence of health, the left ventricle must relax very rapidly after each contraction and then again contract rapidly and forcibly, to push blood into aorta. Sun Salutations improve this function.
  • They bring the mind to a calm, serene yogic state.
  • They help to overcome motivation issues.
  • Sun Salutation is a very complete exercise.  If you only have fifteen or twenty minutes to practice, doing Sun Salutations alone properly cover almost all the benefits of yoga postures.
  • They keep your skills sharp.

The traditional format of Sun Salutations being taught at SAVY Studios helps you derive maximum benefits from this very useful yogic exercise. One feels so alive after just a few rounds of this!

You are most welcome to  learn this routine and stay healthy.

This series will be held every month. Here are the details of the workshop:

    • Location:
      • Physical Location : SAVY International North London Studio at 163 Concord Road London ON N6G 3H9, Or
      • Online – You’ll be sent routine for each day.
    • Formats: 3-Class Series
    • Batches: One batch in the month it is offered.
    • Days & Time:
      • Group Sessions: Fridays, from 09:30 AM – 10:30 AM, or
      • Private Sessions: By appointment
    • Cost:
      • Group Sessions: $150 for all 3 group sessions (+HST), or
      • Private Sessions: $499 for all 3 private sessions (+HST) 
    • Commitment:
      • A firm commitment to complete the program without missing any class (except in an emergency).
      • At the end of the one month program, incorporate the techniques learned in your practice. You may also sign-up for another month. Continue routine Yoga classes if you are already coming, or join classes at SAVY Studio.
    • Components of Program:
      • Surya Namaskar
      • Mantra
      • Pearls of Ancient Wisdom

    The same program is also taught on one-on-one basis and online.

    Please book your appointment for ‘Meet and Greet’.

    Please check the exact schedule and time below.

    Through demonstration, discussion and experiential movement, you will gain key understanding of proper postures and how to keep your body safe. As common sense dictates, one can function properly only if one is disease-free and is in a healthy state of body, mind and spirit. So, for us, your health and disease-free state comes first of all. We firmly believe Yoga is much beyond mere gymnastics and sauna!

Established benefits of Yoga:

  • Improved General Health
  • Longevity
  • Anxiety Relief
  • Stronger Bones
  • Healthier Heart
  • Healthy Weight
  • Lower Stress Levels
  • Increased Flexibility
  • Lower Blood Pressure
  • Improved Lung Capacity
  • Improved Brain Function
  • Greater Sense of Balance
  • Better mind-body connexion
  • Better Sexual Function  & Libido
  • Lower Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetics
  • Relief from Chronic Back Pain and Neck Pain
  • Better over-all quality of life & much more…

The salient features of London Yoga Classes of SAVY Healing Yoga are:

  • Comprehensive, authentic, world class teaching and knowledge-base in all aspects of Yoga
  • Authentic Ashtanaga and Vinyasa Yoga training based on true, traditional Yoga from India
  • Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhyana, Kriyas. Chakras, Kundalini Awakening, Shatkarma, Marma, Mantra etc
  • Clear, concise, to-the-point instruction and individualized care
  • One of the most qualified, experienced, international faculty, well-trained in India with excellent teaching skills
  • Yoga School with highest ranking of RYS 500 – we train yoga teachers up to the highest rank
  • Yoga Therapy services for all diseases available
  • Wonderful, knowledgeable, stable, regular, supportive, warm, welcoming yoga community
  • Unique, specialized yoga classes – Sukshma Yoga, Vinyasa Yoga, Deep Stretch Yoga, Yoga for Face, Meditation Classes, Sun and Moon Salutations, Pranayama etc
  • Workshops on interesting Yoga topics from time to time
  • Delve deep into the field of Yoga – Keep learning and sharing knowledge
  • Suitable time of classes
  • Small size of even group classes
  • Small Class Yoga for smaller groups
  • Private sessions also available
  • Decent studio  and studio setting – enjoy the character and warmth of the Victorian heritage building
  • Authentic Yoga at reasonable rates

Learn all that directly under expert guidance of one of the most qualified faculty in the world! 

Please fill up your Registration and Waiver Form through London Yoga Classes page. Sign up today and live life to your full potential. Call or email for any inquiries.

Sign up today and live life to your full potential.

Book your spot today!

Contact Us

 

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p style=”text-align: justify;”>*HST applicable on all payments.

Nov 142014
 
World Diabetes Day

On World Diabetes Day – Diabetes Mellitus

World Diabetes Day

World Diabetes Day (WDD) is celebrated every year on November 14 to mark the birthday of Sir Frederick Banting of London ON, who, along with Charles Best, first conceived the idea leading to the discovery of insulin in 1921.

This day engages millions of people worldwide in diabetes advocacy and awareness. World Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization in response to growing concerns about the escalating health threat of diabetes. It was adopted as an official United Nations Day in 2007 with the passage of United Nation Resolution 61/225. The campaign draws attention to issues of paramount importance to the diabetes world. Healthy Living and Diabetes is the World Diabetes Day theme for 2014-2016.

The logo for World Diabetes Day is the blue circle – the global symbol for diabetes which was developed as part of the Unite for Diabetes awareness campaign.

 

Diabetes Mellitus

Around 250 B.C., the name “diabetes” was first used. The word diabetes comes from Greek, meaning a “siphon”. Araetus the Cappadocian, a Greek physician during the second century A.D., named the condition diabainein. He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria) – like a siphon. The word became “diabetes” from the English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes.

In 1675, Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means “honey”; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean “siphoning off sweet water”.

In ancient India people observed that ants would be attracted to some people’s urine, because it was sweet. The term “Sweet Urine Disease” was coined.

Key Points

diabetes

  • Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels.
  • In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes.
  • In Type 1 Diabetes – the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
  • In Type 2 Diabetes – the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
  • Gestational Diabetes – this type affects females during pregnancy.
  • The most common diabetes symptoms include
    • Polyuria – frequent urination
    • Polydipsia – intense thirst, and
    • Polyphagia – intense hunger.
    • Weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet are also commonly reported symptoms.
  • In Type 1 Diabetes, if you follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life.
  • In Type 2, patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels.
  • As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for diabetics, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly.
  • As smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should stop smoking.
  • Hypoglycemia – low blood glucose – can have a deleterious effect on patient.
  • Hyperglycemia – when blood glucose is too high – can also have a bad effect on the patient.

There are three types of diabetes:

1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

The body does not produce insulin. It is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetesjuvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet. The prevalence of type 1 Diabetes among the under 20s in the USA rose 23% between 2001 and 2009.

2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

diabetes

Beta cells in islets of Langerhans do not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the receptors in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with more of central obesity are especially at risk. Being overweight/obese causes the body to release chemicals that can destabilize the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems. It may respond to simple measures such as : loss of weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring blood glucose levels regularly. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease. Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older. Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

3) Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy. This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.

The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.

Pre-diabetes Mellitus

The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially have prediabetes. Their post-prandial blood glucose levels go higher than normal, but come back to normal. Studies indicate that some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may occur even at this stage.

Investigations

Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, is pre-diabetic or diabetic through three tests:

  • The Hb A1c test: Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also HbA1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time.
    – at least 6.5% means diabetes
    – between 5.7% and 5.99% means pre-diabetes
    – less than 5.7% means normal
  • The FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) test
    – at least 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L) means diabetes
    – between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl (5.5 to 7.0 mmol/L) means prediabetes
    – less than 100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) means normal
    An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
  • The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
    – at least 200 mg/dl (11.2 mmol/L) means diabetes
    – between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl (7.8 to 11.2 mmol/L) means prediabetes
    – less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) means normal
    An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

Blood Glucose Regulation

Following is the list of known hormones which regulate blood glucose levels.

Hormone Tissue of Origin Metabolic Effect Effect on Blood Glucose
Insulin Pancreatic β Cells in Islets of Langerhans

1) Enhances entry of glucose into cells

2) Enhances storage of glucose as glycogen, or conversion to fatty acids

3) Enhances synthesis of fatty acids and proteins

4) Suppresses breakdown of proteins into amino acids, of adipose tissue into free fatty acids

Lowers
Somatostatin Pancreatic δ Cells in Islets of Langerhans

1) Suppresses glucagon release from α cells (acts locally)

2) Suppresses release of Insulin, Pituitary tropic hormones, gastrin and secretin

Lowers
Glucagon Pancreatic α Cells in Islets of Langerhans

1) Enhances release of glucose from glycogen

2) Enhances synthesis of glucose from amino acids or fatty acids

Raises
Epinephrine Adrenal medulla

1) Enhances release of glucose from glycogen

2) Enhances release of fatty acids from adipose tissue

Raises
Cortisol Adrenal cortex

1) Enhances gluconeogenesis

2) Antagonizes Insulin

Raises
ACTH Anterior pituitary

1) Enhances release of cortisol

2) Enhances release of fatty acids from adipose tissue

Raises
Growth Hormone Anterior pituitary Antagonizes Insulin Raises
Thyroxine Thyroid

1) Enhances release of glucose from glycogen

2) Enhances absorption of sugars from intestine

Raises

Controlling Diabetes

All types of diabetes are treatable.

Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections, as well as a special diet and exercise.

Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime, however, it can be managed with or without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control. Sometimes insulin injections are also required.

Patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications especially if diabetes is not adequately controlled.

 

Complications linked to diabetes

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Eye complications– glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and some others.
  • Foot complications– neuropathy, ulcers, and sometimes gangrene which may require that the foot be amputated
  • Skin complications– people with diabetes are more susceptible to skin infections and skin disorders
  • Heart problems– such as ischemic heart disease, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished
  • Hypertension– common in people with diabetes, which can raise the risk of kidney disease, eye problems, heart attack and stroke
  • Mental health– uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders
  • Hearing loss– diabetes patients have a higher risk of developing hearing problems
  • Gum disease– there is a much higher prevalence of gum disease among diabetes patients
  • Gastroparesis– the muscles of the stomach stop working properly
  • Ketoacidosis– a combination of ketosis and acidosis; accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood.
  • Neuropathy– diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems.
  • HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome)– blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine. It is an emergency condition.
  • Nephropathy– uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to kidney disease
  • PAD (peripheral arterial disease)– symptoms may include pain in the leg, tingling and sometimes problems walking properly
  • Stroke– if blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels are not controlled, the risk of stroke increases significantly
  • Erectile dysfunction– male impotence.
  • Infections– people with badly controlled diabetes are much more susceptible to infections
  • Healing of wounds– cuts and lesions take much longer to heal

 

Some Facts And Myths Regarding Diabetes

Many presumed myths keep making rounds. It is important to have an accurate picture of the disease. Some common diabetes myths are mentioned here:

  • People with diabetes should not exercise– THIS IS NOT TRUE! Exercise is important for people with diabetes, as it is for everybody else. Exercise helps manage body weight, improves cardiovascular health, improves mood, helps blood sugar control, and relieves stress. Yoga has been shown to have an important role. Patients should discuss exercise with their doctor first.
  • Fat people always develop type 2 diabetes eventually– Again, this is not true. Being overweight or obese raises the risk of becoming diabetic, they are risk factors, but do not mean that an obese person will definitely become diabetic.
  • Diabetes is a nuisance, but not serious– Diabetes is a serious disease. Two thirds of diabetes patients die prematurely from stroke or heart disease. The life expectancy of a person with diabetes is from five to ten years shorter than other people’s.
  • Children can outgrow diabetes– Child-onset diabetes is almost always type 1; insulin-producing beta cells in islets of Langerhans in pancreas do not produce insulin, so they will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives.
  • Don’t eat too much sugar, you will become diabetic– A person with diabetes type 1 develops the disease because immune system destroyed the insulin-producing beta cells. A diet high in calories, which can make people overweight/obese, raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, especially if there is a history of this disease in the family.
  • I know when my blood sugar levels are high or low– The only way to be sure about your blood sugar levels is to test it regularly. Even very slight rise in blood-glucose levels significantly raises the risk of ischemic heart disease.
  • Diabetes diets are different from other people’s– Experts say that there is no need to buy special diabetic foods because they offer no special benefit as compared to the healthy things we can buy in most shops. Diabetics just need to eat healthy.
  • High blood sugar levels are fine for some, while for others they are a sign of diabetes– High blood-sugar levels are never normal for anybody. Some illnesses, mental stress and steroids can cause temporary hikes in blood sugar levels in people without diabetes. Anybody with higher-than-normal blood sugar levels or sugar in their urine should be checked for diabetes.
  • Diabetics cannot eat bread, potatoes or pasta– People with diabetes can eat starchy foods. However, they must keep an eye on the size of the portions. Whole grain starchy foods are better, as is true for people without diabetes.
  • One person can transmit diabetes to another person– Diabetes is not infectious or contagious.
  • Only older people develop type 2 diabetes– A growing number of children and teenagers are developing type 2 diabetes. Experts say that this is linked to the explosion in childhood obesity rates, poor diet, and physical inactivity.
  • I have to go on insulin, this must mean my diabetes is severe– people take insulin when diet alone or diet with oral or non-insulin injectable medicines do not provide good-enough diabetes control. Insulin helps diabetes control. It does not usually have anything to do with the severity of the disease.
  • If you have diabetes you cannot eat chocolates or sweets– People with diabetes can eat chocolates and sweets if they combine them with exercise or eat them as part of a healthy meal, provided blood glucose level stays within normal limits.
  • Diabetes patients are more susceptible to colds and illnesses in general– A person with diabetes with good control is no more likely to become ill with a cold or something else than other people.

 

 Ayurveda in Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes was known to ancient Ayurveda and Yoga experts thousands of years ago.  The Indian physician Sushruta in 400 B.C. described the sweet taste of urine from affected individuals, and for many centuries to come, the sweet taste of urine was key to diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus is known to Indians from Vedic period onwards by the name Asrava (Prameha). Diabetes is also known as Madhumeha (means passing sweet urine) in Ayurveda. The knowledge and effectiveness of diagnosis can be understood from the fact that Ayurveda has classified Diabetes (madhumeha) into 20 different types!

Types of diabetes , Causes and Symptoms

Two types of Prameha from management point of view has been described:

  • Krisha Pramehi (Lean Diabetic), and
  • Sthula pramehi  (Obese Diabetic)

They are classified in Ayurveda on very similar grounds as Diabetics are classified in IDDM and NIDDM respectively.

On the very similar pattern we find the classification as

  • Sahaj pramehi (Congenital) and
  • Apathaya nimmitaj (due to overeating and wrong eating habits).

Ayurveda clearly defines diabetes.  Diabetes Mellitus was known to Hindu Civilization since vedic period by the names:

  • Asrava(Prameha),
  • Madhumeha, or
  • Maharoga(Major Disease),

as almost all parts of the body and every cell of human physiology are affected.

It also disturbs 5 sheaths of the body –

  1. annamaya kosha {Food sheath},
  2. pranamayakosha{Energy sheath}, 
  3. manomaya kosha{Mind Sheath},
  4. vijnana maya kosha{IntellectualSheath} and
  5. anandamaya kosha{Bliss Sheath}.

According to Ayurveda, prameha is divided in 4 major types (and total 21 types)

  • Kapha type (again divided into 10 types)
  • Pitta type (again divided into 6 types)
  • Vata type (divided into 4 types)
  • Juvenile diabetes for children (for unhealthy practices of parents and/or due to the sins of past-birth)

The main cause of prameha (diabetes) are lack of exercise and consumption of excess food having ushna, snigdha and guru nature. Foods that increase kapha, medhas and mootra are the major factors for prameha.

 

Yashcha kinchith vidhiranyepi sleshma medho moothra samjananam sa sarva: nidana vishesha.

 

Classification of Prameha (Diabetes) :

According to Ayurveda , Prameha (Diabetes) can be classified in two categories :-

1)      Apatharpana uthaja prameha describing the lean diabetic and

2)      Santharpana uthaja prameha relating the obese diabetic.

 

Classification according to Causes of diabetes :-

1)      Sahaja prameha (congenital)

2)      Apathyanimittaja prameha (due to over eating and poor habits)

 

Classification of Diabetes according to Dosha :-

According to Ayurveda, Prameha (diabetes) is a tridoshaja vyadhi.  However the predominance of any one dosha and dooshya enables its classification into

  • Vataja Prameha
  • Pitaja Prameha, &
  • Kaphaja Pramehas.

They are further sub classified into 20 sub categories according to characteristics of urine, its volume, dhatu being excreted through urine.

Normally, Prameha (Diabetes- Madhumeha ) is classified by Ayurvedic Practitioners according to dosha predominance viz.

1) kapahja,

2) pithaja,

3) vathaja,

4) kapha-pithaja,

5) kapha-vathaja,

6) pitha-vathaja, and

7) vatha-pitha-kaphaja.

Sannipatha, kevala vathaja and kapha-vthaja(to some extent) and pitha-vathaja can be considered as IDDM. And others are considered as NIDDM.

 

1. Sweda Profuced Sweating
2. Angagandham Foul Smell of the Body
3. Anga Shidhilathwam Looseness of the body
4. Sayyasna Swapnasukhabhishangithwam Feeling of lethargy
5. Hridayopadeham Feeling of something coated or heaviness of hridaya.
6. Netropadeham Feeling of some thing coated on eyes
7. Jhwopadeham sensation of a coated tongue.
8. Shravanopadeham Feeling of coating on ears
9. Anga ghanathwam Heaviness of body parts
10. Keshathivridhi Excessive growth of hairs
11. Nakhathivridhi Excessive growth of Nails
12. Sheetha priyathwam Affinity towards cold
13. Gala shosham Dryness of throat
14. Thalu shosham Dryness of palate
15. Asya madhuryam Sweet taste in mouth
16. Karadaham Burning sensation of palms
17. Pada daham Burning sensation of soles
18. Moothra madhuryam Sweetness of urine

 

According to Sushruta, Dosha predominance is the primary factor in Diabetes Complication.  According to him Malabandha (Constipation) is a complication of this disease as the patient has a concentration of Meda.  In such cases laxatives of average doses are not effective.

According to Brihathrayees, pidika (diabetic carbuncle) is a major complication of prameha (Madhumeha).

Complications as per Dosha :-

Kaphaja

  • Avipakam– indigestion
  • Aruchi– Loss of appetite
  • Chardi– Vomiting tendency
  • Athinidra– Excessive sleep
  • Kasam– Cough
  • Peenasam– Cold with running nose

Pittaja

  • Vasthimehanyotoda – Pain in Bladder & urinary path
  • Mushkavatharanam – Pain in testes
  • Jwara– Fever
  • Daham– Burning sensation
  • Trishna– Thirst
  • Amlika– Acidity
  • Moorcha– Giddiness
  • Vitbhedanam– Loose Motion
  • Hridayashoola– Pain in heart region
  • Nidranasam– Loss of sleep

Vataja

  • Udavartham-Upward movement of vatha.
  • Kambam-Tremor
  • Hridgraham-Gripping pain in chest region
  • Lolatha-Affinity
  • Soolam-Pain
  • Anidratha-Insomnia
  • Sosha-Wasting
  • Kasam-Cough
  • Swasam-Difficulty to breath
  • Badhapureeshathwa        –Constipation

According to Charaka.  There are three types of prameha.

  • Sadhya  – curable
  • Yapya    – Palliable
  • Asadhya – Incurable

Sadhya: Describes patients who have been diagnosed very early in the onset of prameha (Madhumeha). In this category of patients , there can be those who are sthoola  (obese) and the origin of their disease is in apathyaja (poor living habbits)

Yapya: Patients under this catagory have Pittaja prameha & certain types of kaphaja prameha.However Yapya (palliable) helps control the disease with treatment.

Asadhya: Describes the incurable version of prameha (Madhumeha) & inherited diabetes.Sahaja patients suffering from this variety are Krisha (lean)

 

Involvement of Ojas in Prameha (Madhumeha)

Ojas is the essence of life, an extract of the seven dhathus (Elements) Rasa(Chyle), Rakta (Blood),Mamsa (Muscles), Majja(Marrow), Asthi (Bone), Meda (Brain & Spinal Cord), Sukra (Sperm & Ovum), Ojas (Mahadhatu=Superior Dhatu) represented as bala {strength }of the body. The ojus in a healthy person determines the physical, psychic, sensory motor functions of the body. The biochemical component of the body which is reddish, white, slightly yellowish in colour residing in heart and other vital organs of the body. If ojas is distrubed, degeneration will be fast and result in decreased life span. In prameha the ojas (life essence) is expunged from the body through all navadwaras especially through urine & sweat.

Ojas gets imbalanced in prameha in two ways:

  1. Through obstruction in blood vessels (srothorodha)
  2. Degeneration of the body components is dhatu kshaya this can cause both cardiac & nervous system disorders.all this is ojakshaya meaning an imbalance in Ojus.

 

Management of Prameha (Madhumeha)

According to Ayurveda the line of treatment of prameha is strictly on individual’s constitution.

1)      The prakrithi of the patient

2)      Dosha predominance of disease

3)      Dooshya vitiation

4)      Obstruction in srothus

5)      Manasika Prakrithi

6)      Ahara & Vihara

7)      Samskaras or Hereditary factors etc…

In general Diabetes Mellitus (Vathaja prameha) patients are advised to have Bhrimhana medication & diet which increases dhathus in the body.

 ayurved med

Herbs useful in treatment of Diabetes :-

Specifications :-

Latin Name : Pterocarpus marsupium – leguminosae

Rasa (Taste) : Kashaya (Astrigent), Tikta (Bitter)

Guna (Characteristics ) – Lakhu (Light), Ruksha  (Rough)

Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)

Vipaka (Post digestion effect) – Katu (Pungent)

Actions according to Ayurveda :-

  • Rasayana : Vijaysar rejuvenates each and every cell of the body.
  • Raktasodhana : Vijaysar purifies the blood and removes all toxins from it.
  • Krimirogahar (Antihelmenthic) : Vijaysar is very useful in disease which originate from external causes like infection, worm infestation etc.
  • Pramehaghna : Vijaysar is useful in all disease which involve discoloration of urine including diabetes (Madhumeha).

For thousands of years, ancient physicians have been successfully treating Prameha with the Ayurvedic measures and drugs. Many drugs have already been screened for their anti-diabetic property/blood sugar lowering property. The importance of diet and exercise is also stressed in Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic diet regimens and the recipes may serve as a good replacement for the Diabetic patient. Though many of the diabetic drugs that are used today have a good sugar lowering (Hypoglycemic property they essentially act only symptomatically. The management modalities can be categorized as:

  • Vyaayam (Exercise),
  • Pathya (dietary regulation),
  • Panchakarma (Bio-purification procedures) and
  • The use of therapeutic measures (Medicines).

The herbal drugs used in the management of Prameha are bitter, astringent and pungent in taste. Some of the widely used herb apart from Vijaysar for the management of diabetes is as follows:

  1. Eugenia jambolana:(Jamun beej churna) Dry seed powder of Jamun fruits have to be used in a dose of one-teaspoon twice/thrice daily with lukewarm water.
  2. Gymnema sylvestre: (Gudmar patra churna) Dry leaves of this plant have to be used one teaspoon daily with lukewarm water. The leaves when chewed render the mouth tasteless to sweet for 45 min to one hour.
  3. Pterocarpus marsupium (Vijaysar churna) Bark of this plant is available in the form of powder. Cubes or Vijaysaar glasses are also very popular & Effective.  The piece of Vijaysaar is kept in water overnight or water is kept in the glass is consumed early morning on empty stomach. One should discard these cubes or glasses once there is no color change observed in water.

4.Ficus bengalensis (Nyagrodha twaka churna) This is banyan tree bark. A decoction of bark is to be prepared and consumed twice daily in a dose of 40 to 80ml. The decoction is prepared by taking around 25-50gms of bark to which 4 cups of water are to be added. It is heated to make one cup, which has to be consumed.

  1. Shilajeet Popularly known as Rock salt, various reputed companies have Granular or powdered form of Shilajeet available. Though not very useful in reducing the blood sugar it is an excellent remedy to for loss of libido in males and in case of generalized weakness.
  2. C. Tamal (Tejpatra) This is very commonly used as a spice in preparing food products. A diabetic patient may make a point to add the leaves of this plant in his food. Also the powder of leaves may be consumed.
  3. Fenugreek seeds (Methi churna) Seeds of Methi have to be soaked in warm water overnight and chewed early in the morning with warm water. One may take powder of these seeds with warm water twice daily.  Methi powder may be added to the wheat flour to prepare chapattis.
  4. Momordica chirantia Karvellaka (Karella) Juice of Karela should be taken early in the morning in a quantity of 20 ml.  The dried whole fruit powder can also be consumed in the dose of ½ to 1 teaspoon twice daily.
  5. Embelica officinalis (Amala) When fresh Amla are available one may take Amla juice 20 ml daily or otherwise powder of Amla fruits may be taken twice daily.
  6. Curcuma longa (Haridra) Haldi powder along with Amla juice is a very good combination in patients of Diabetes. It is especially useful in prevention as well as treatment of patients of Diabetic eye disease. Haldi can be put in milk as well.
  7. Kirat tikata (Chirayata) A decoction of this plant is to be taken daily early morning. It is a very popular remedy used in all parts of the country for various skin disorders and hence forms a perfect remedy for skin infections in Diabetics .

An ayurvedic physician may advise adjuvant ayurvedic drugs. Not only do these help in lowering the blood sugar but also prevent the long-term complications of diabetes. We shall name some of these combinations/preparations:

  • Chandraprabha vati: In a dose of 500 mg twice or thrice daily. This is specially used in patients having Diabetes with Urinary tract infection or in females having leucorrhoea. This can be used along with Gorshuradi guggul in the same dose.
  • Trivang Bhasma: This is a combination of three bhasmas namely Naga, Vanga and Yashaha Bhasma. It is to be taken in a dose of 125mg twice daily available in the form of powder. It is very useful in conditions where there is excessive urination, Male sexual problems as well as to treat generalized weakness.
  • Dhatri Nisha: A combination of Haldi powder and Amla Rasa and has to be taken early morning and is especially useful in eye condition.
  • Vasant Kusumakar Rasa: A very useful tonic for diabetics especially useful in the stage of complications it has to be consumed in a dose of 125 mg twice daily. Along with having a general tonic effect it also helps in Diabetic eye condition and in preventing various conditions developing due to Nerve weakness.
  • Arogyavardhini
  • Mamajjaka Ghana vati
  • Jambvasava
  • Pathyakshadhatryadi kashaya
  • Panchanimba churna

Along with regular use of vijaysar, following herbs can also be used depending upon symptoms

1)       Diabetes with Arthritis: Yograj guggul, freshly prepared decoction of Dasamoola, Rasna saptak, a paste of sunthi or Dasang lepa may be applied on the affected joint.

2)       Diabetes with constipation: Powders like Gandharva haritaki, Isabgool, Panchaskar, Hingvastak can be used to relieve constipation.

3)       Diabetes with burning sensation in the soles and palms: this can be well managed with Mangista Ghana vati, chandrakala rasa, Chandraprabha vati, pravaal pisti, Guduchi satva etc

4)       Diabetes with cough: Diabetic patient suffering of chronic cough may given powders of Yasti madhu, Kantakari, Vasa, Shati etc. Ayurvedic cough syrups available in the market are not safe to be taken by a diabetic patients

5)       Diabetes with excessive thirst: Excessive thirst may be managed with the use of cold infusions (heema) of Dahayanak, usheera, Chandan etc. Praval, Guduchi, may also be used.

6)       Diabetes with excessive urination: excessive urination can be treated with the use of Trivang bhasma, jasad bhasma, etc

7)       Generalised weakness and fatigue are the usual symptoms that can be treated with the use of herbs like shatavari, Ashvagandha, Bala Yastimadhu. Complications like tapyadi loha, Vasant kusumakar rasa are also very effective

8)    Impotence is a very distressing symptom of a diabetic patient. By assessing the age of the patient they may be advised Ashwagandha, Kaucha beeja, musali etc.

Permitted food for Diabetics according to Ayurveda :

Wholesome diet habit for diabetes:
1. Shigru(drum stick)
2. Haridra(turmeric)
3. Amalaki(goose berry)
4. Shyamaka-Setaria italica (L.) Beau.
5. Kodrava- Paspalum scrobiculatum,Linn.
4. Yava(barley)
5. Godhuma(wheat)
6. Mudga(green gram)
7. Kulattha(horse gram)
8. Patola(snake gourd)
9. Karavellaka(bitter gourd)
10. Maricha(pepper)
11. Lashuna(garlic)
12. Jambu(blue berry)
13. Vyayama(exercise) etc

Prohibited diet for diabetics according to Ayurveda:
1. Kanda- moola (root-rhizome)
2. Ikshu (sugar cane juice)
3. Taila(oil)
4. Ghrita(ghee)
5. Guda(jiggery)
6. Kanjika/shukta(sour beverages)
7. Madya(alcohol)
8. Pishtanna(carbohydrate rich food)
9. Anupa mamsa(flesh of marshy land)
10. Dadhi (curd)
11. Navanna (new grains)
11. Divaswapna (day sleep etc)

 

7 Effective Home Remedies for Controlling Sugar

Ayurveda recommends many simple home remedies to keep diabetes under control. Incorporating one or two of these remedies into your daily diet plan can help you prevent or at the least manage your blood glucose levels.

  1. Mix half a teaspoon of turmeric powder + 1 teaspoon of amla powder + half a tablespoon of methi seeds powder in half a glass of water and take daily in the morning on an empty stomach.
  2. Mix honey with barley that is soaked overnight in Triphala decoction (available at Ayurveda stores) and have it several times during the day.
  3. Juice of bitter melon or gourd can test the toughest amongst us. But when taken on an empty stomach it works wonders at balancing our blood sugar level.
  4. Grind and mix 100gms of fenugreek (methi) seeds, 50gms of turmeric and some white pepper. Take one teaspoon of this powder with a glass of milk twice daily.
  5. Soak one teaspoon of fenugreek overnight in water and drink it with water or milk in the morning.
  6. A tablespoon of the juice of the Indian gooseberry mixed with a cup of fresh bitter gourd juice is said to enable the pancreas to secrete insulin, if it is taken daily for two months.
  7. Drink a glass of water with 10 tulsi leaves, 10 belpatras and fenugreek leaves early in the morning on an empty stomach.

Yoga in Diabetes

Effectiveness of Yoga at preventing and treating diabetes is due to its emphasis of a healthy diet and lifestyle as well as its ability to balance the endocrine system, massage and tone the abdominal organs, stimulate the nervous and circulatory systems, and reduce stress. Pranayama or breathing exercises offer still greater hope.

Stress has been shown to play an important role in diabetes by elevating blood glucose levels and increasing the odds of developing certain complications, such as heart disease, stroke and infections. And having a chronic disease that requires major lifestyle changes and constant monitoring can be very stressful in itself. Research now shows that chronically elevated levels of cortisol (hormone produced by the stress response) can lead to blood sugar problems, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Yoga and meditation are the two best practices to reduce stress and yoga has been shown to dramatically lower cortisol levels in the body.

All steps of Ashtanga Yoga, viz., Yamas, Niyamas, Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharna, Dhyana and Samadhi, are important and should  be adhered to in the same order. In health or disease, it’s always better to know and choose yoga postures and pranayama exercises according to the prakriti and  vikriti of the person.

In general, exercise is a highly effective part of diabetes treatment because it increases insulin sensitivity and lowers blood sugar. Many studies have reported the beneficial effect of the practice of yoga on diabetes, confirming that the practice of postures can stimulate the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Yoga has also been proven helpful for weight management, blood sugar control, as well as lowering of the dosage of diabetic medications.

Yoga Postures

Surya Namaskar
Forward bends, twists and prone (belly down) poses all compress the abdomen to stimulate the pancreas, with prone poses being the most effective. Use forward bends and calming poses to reduce stress. In addition to acting on koshas and balancing chakras, yoga postures improve lymphatic circulation and hence body immunity. Yogic postures done with focus on breath, bandha, drishti and proper alignment are meditative and help in detoxification. Two reasons that yoga is particularly great for diabetes is that it:

  • Rejuvenates pancreatic cells, through alternate abdominal contractions and relaxation, during asanas (yogic postures which produce relaxation) and breathing exercises.
  • Reduces blood sugar due to muscular exercise involved in the asanas.

Some yogic postures provenly beneficial in diabetes are:

  1. Surya Namaskar (sun salutation)
  2. Setubandhasana (bridge pose)
  3. Pavanamuktasana (wind relieving pose)
  4. Trikonasana (triangle pose)
  5. Tadasana (mountain pose)
  6. Sukhasana (easy pose)
  7. Padmasana (lotus pose)
  8. Pashimottanasana (posterior stretch)
  9. Ardhmatsyendrasana (half spinal twist)
  10. Pawanmuktasana (joint freeing series)
  11. Bhujangasana (cobra pose)
  12. Vajrasana (thunderbolt pose)
  13. Dhanurasana (bow pose)
  14. Halasana (plow pose)
  15. Naukasana (boat pose)
  16. Bhujangasana (cobra pose)
  17. Shavasana (corpse pose)
  18. Anila Asana

Pranayama

pranayama2
Practice Pranayama to increase circulation of blood, oxygen and prana to facilitate healing and for stress reduction. Ashwin, the breath, is said to be the physician of gods. According to Vedas, it heals all maladies, with a name or without it. Recent years have witnessed a rise in interest in the healing powers of pranayama and myriad of studies have proven its positive effects on health. Pranayama has immense healing potential, and in expert hands, can work wonders. Pranayama is a great way to boost immunity. It is the bridge between the physical body and spiritual body and optimizes the flow of Prana. In general, some exercises like:

  • Bhastrika
  • Ujjayi
  • Kapal Bhati
  • Anulom Vilom
  • Moorchha
  • Vibhag Pranayama
  • Mahat Pranayama
  • Sama Vritti Pranayama
  • Visham Vritti Pranayama etc.

have been shown to help in diabetes. Please check the details of some breathing exercises here.

To offer the advantages of this yogic science of breathing, SAVY launched Dr Sahdev’s ‘Breathe and Heal’ Program ,a stepped program based on some very safe and healing breathing exercises in 2012.

Meditation 

meditation
Meditation reduces stress, calms the mind and activates the body’s natural healing abilities. You can use one of the following by itself and/or at the beginning and end of yoga practice:

  • Yoga Meditation,
  • Third Eye Meditation
  • Prana Healing Meditation

Yoga Nutrition

Healthy Heat Eating

Diabetes has been linked to the western lifestyle, as it is rarely seen in cultures that consume a natural non-processed, non-refined diet. Because of the standard Western diet that is high in sugar and dead carbohydrates that turn to sugar, the pancreas becomes exhausted and the cells are overworked. A yogic diet that is high in fiber, whole grains, legumes and vegetables is recommended to lose excess weight and stabilize blood sugar levels. With the synergetic combination of yoga, regular aerobic exercise and healthy diet diabetes can be controlled and quiet often reduced or even cured.

Some studies on raw vegetarian diet claim miraculous results.

Marma Therapy

Marma Points

Marmas can also be called minor chakras; they are vital points in the body through which life energy flows. There are 108 marmas and they are classified into different groups. Some marmas are very important in diabetes, and if massaged with proper pressure/technique, order, oil, duration etc., can help a lot in prevention as well as relief. Some points for diabetes are :

  1. Indrabasti
  2. Hridaya marma
  3. Tala Hridaya
  4. Urvi Marma
  5. Stanarohita Marma
  6. Guda Marma

Activation of these and other important points by massage with specific herbal oils, medicated ghrita in a gentle manner with discrete motion is highly beneficial. All this must be undertaken under the strict supervision of a well-trained expert with actual experience.

 

Ayurvedic/ Yogic massage based on Marma Therapy is quite beneficial. This is done not only as a means to relieve stress but also for deeper therapeutic reasons. It assists in hormonal balance. Most masseurs are not trained in such specialized massage, so, finding a knowledgeable expert becomes very important.

Mudra Vigyan and Kriya Vigyan

yoga mudra

Various hand postures (hasta mudras) are said to have very beneficial effect in health and disease.

There are five hand mudras which are quite effective in diabetes. Practice for 45 minutes daily at a stretch or three times of 15 minutes each, depending on your comfort level.

1. Surya Mudra

 ‘Surya’ is a Sanskrit word that means ‘Sun’. Surya mudra is known to increase the fire within the human body that in turn ensures an optimised metabolic rate. Diabetics, in general, have poor metabolic rates which results in increased sugar levels and weight gain. Regular practice of this mudra will help boost metabolic rates, thus ensuring loss of weight and lowering of sugar levels. The mudra also helps easing indigestion and associated problems.

Method:

  1. Sit or stand straight.
  2. Stretch your hands to your front.
  3. Bend your ring finger so that it touches the root of thumb.
  4. Keep the other fingers spread out, apart from each other.

 

2. Pran Mudra

Known as the Mudra of Life, it helps in improving the vital force of life and activates your Mooladhara Chakra or root chakra. Thus, it empowers you wholly within. The mudra, when practiced without fail, helps in detoxifying your body. Practicing this mudra alongside Apan Mudra has been proven to offer relief to those suffering from diabetes.

Method:

  1. Sit down in a relaxed position, preferably, Padmasana (Lotus pose), with your eyes closed. Those who are uncomfortable in this position can opt for performing the mudra in Tadasana (Mountain Pose).
  2. Focus on your breathing.
  3. Keep your hands on your sides.
  4. Bend your little finger and ring finger to touch the thumb.
  5. Keep the index finger and middle finger straight.

Make sure that you perform this mudra with both the hands.

 

3. Apan Mudra

The mudra, also called the mudra of purification, is one of the easiest yoga mudras. It aids in striking a better balance between the elements within the human body. Thus, it ensures that the unwanted toxins are flushed out properly from your body. This mudra results in frequent urination for eliminating the wastes, thus lowering the blood sugar levels.

Method:

  1. Sit in Padmasana or Vajrasana. Those who have knee problems can opt for standing in Tadasana.
  2. Keep your hands stretched to your front.
  3. Bend your thumb, middle finger, and ring finger in such a way that their tips come together.
  4. Keep the little finger and index finger straight.

Make sure that you perform this mudra with both the hands. Combine this mudra with Vayu mudra and practice regularly for preventing and curing diabetes.

 

4. Gyan Mudra

Also known as Chin Mudra, it can be practiced by the diabetics to enjoy deep relaxation. It helps in relaxing the body and eliminating stress and other mind-related issues.

Method: The mudra, in general, is practiced alongside meditation poses.

  1. Choose a sitting position, such as Padmasana, Vajrasana or Sukhasana, depending on your ease of doing so. You can even choose Tadasana, if you can concentrate without any trouble. Those who find it difficult to follow any of the yoga asanas can opt for sitting relaxingly on a chair. Keep your eyes closed.
  2. Keep your back straight; head and chest should be held high. Focus on your breathing.
  3. Keep your palms on your knees. Palms should face upwards.
  4.  Bend the index finger to touch the thumb’s tip, while the rest of the fingers are kept straight.
  5. Performing this Mudra while chanting will yield more effective outcomes.

 

5. Linga Mudra

Lingam, in Sanskrit, means phallus – the male reproductive organ. This mudra is helpful for those who are suffering from diabetes. It helps in activating the fire element within the human body, thus generating intense heat. This, in turn, causes an increase in metabolic levels. The higher the metabolic levels, the more the chances of a person losing weight. This, automatically, lowers blood sugar levels, offering relief from diabetes.

Method:

  1. Sit down in Padmasana, Vajrasana or Sukhasana or choose to stand in Tadasana.
  2. Clasp your hands stretched in front of the body while keeping the fingers intertwined.
  3. The thumb of your left hand should point upward. Circle it with the right thumb and right index finger.
  4. Inhale and exhale normally and maintain the position for 15 minutes.

 

 

Nabho Mudra - Breathe and Heal

Nabho Mudra – Breathe and Heal

Also, Nabho mudra and Khechari mudra, when done properly along with certain Pranayamas, are said to have a curative effective.

ayurved

Panchakarma requires strict supervision by an expert. Shatkarma is a set of six detoxifying procedures, viz., Neti, Dhauti, Nyauli, Basti, Kapal Bhati, Tratak, which are said to remove the toxins from the body and thus help the body recover from any ailment.

 

NADA YOGA AND MANTRAS

All disorders in Ayurveda have been correlated to karmic influences. Hence chanting Mantras with appropriate gestures is very helpful. The selection of Mantras and time to chant depends on the natal chart and its interpretation.

Gayatri Mantra

Mantras influence the vibratory functions of cells and help them work in specific synchronization with the brain. Over a period of time it helps to cleanse the body of toxins. These therapies must be followed with strict guidelines of diet and lifestyle.

 

VEDIC ASTROLOGY AND GEMSTONES

Gemstone therapy and Vedic astrology have been shown to be useful in diabetes.According to Astrology, planetary Combinations which causes Diabetes are:

  • Two or Three Malefic Planets if posited in Watery Signs
  • Two or Three Malefic Planets posited in the 6th House.
  • Two of Three Malefic Planets posited in Libra or in 7th house
  • Moon afflicted by Sun or Mars in Watery Signs
  • Venus afflicted by Sun or Mars in Watery Signs
  • If the 6th lord is posited in 8th or vice versa

Astrologically, Diabetes can be cured by wearing two gems:

  1. Red coral, and
  2. Yellow sapphire.

There are certain rules for wearing the stone:

1. The Gemstones shall be worn in silver.
2. Gemstones shall be energized by purification.
3. The Gemtones shall be worn in right hand.
4. Gemstones can be worn in a single pendant where Yellow Sapphire shall be fitted on the right hand side and Red Coral on the left hand side.

At SAVY we offer Yoga Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and other ailments.

Also, please look up here for upcoming workshops, or

Contact Us

 

Learn all that directly under expert guidance of one of the most qualified faculty in the world! Your Yoga Teacher – Dr Jitender K Sahdev E-RYT 500 D.Sc., Ph.D.,MD, is a Yoga Therapist /Yoga Teacher in London with over 37,000 hours of Traditional Yoga teaching experience. A Surgeon by profession from India with almost three decades of experience in Medicine, he utilizes Yoga as a complementary therapy for optimizing the health and wellness of his clients and for easing symptoms associated with disease. He trained under doyens of Yoga in India for almost four decades. He is a Yoga Therapist in Canada.

Sign up today and live life to your full potential.

We provide a FREE 15- minute Consultation to dispel your doubts and answer your queries.

Call or email for any inquiries.

Jitender K Sahdev

Dr Jitender K Sahdev

 

Note : Yoga Therapy is best administered in an individualized manner though some generalized guidelines have been provided for all.

You should check with your health care professional before starting this or any new therapy or exercise program or breathing routine. This is especially important if you have any pre-existing health conditions, such as high blood pressure, migraines or heart or lung ailments. Women who are pregnant or think they might be pregnant should consult their physician before performing any of the breathing or physical exercises or undertaking any therapy program.

The information contained in the program is not intended to serve as a replacement for professional medical advice. Any use of the information in these programs/ workshops is at the reader’s discretion, risk and responsibility. The studio, author and the publisher specifically disclaim any and all liability arising directly or indirectly from the use or application of any information contained herein. A health care professional should be consulted regarding your specific situation. 

Sep 142014
 
Yoga Classes

Yoga Fundamentals Series

SAVY Yoga has been serving the city of London and surrounding areas since 2011. To serve the people London in a better way, instead of serving some run-of-the-mill pseudo-yoga routines, we offer some very useful, true Yoga/ Pranayama routines, ranging from gentle to very challenging routines, for a beginner to an advanced student alike.

Here, we bring to you a new series of classes on Yoga Fundamentals which introduce you and clarify to you the benefits of authentic traditional ashtanga Yoga.

Yoga Classes

 SAVY Yoga, or more correctly, the SAVY style of Yoga, which has been re-christened as SAVY Healing Yoga, is one of the most complete and healthful yoga available today, and a lot of well-informed and well-educated hard work goes in to keep it like that. SAVY has made big strides in its very short tenure as delineated in SAVY Storyline.

This 3- Class series on Yoga Fundamentals is for the absolute beginner as well as for those who would like to revisit and clarify the basic principles. We shall explore basic yoga postures, breathing exercises and Yoga Mudras in depth and give you confidence with your own personal practice. You`ll learn safe practices and experience the healing effects of Yoga.

You are most welcome to  learn this routine and stay healthy.

This series is held periodically.

The program will consist of a group-based practice led by a knowledgeable and experienced instructor.

Here are the details:

  • Location:
    • Physical Location : SAVY International North London Studio at 163 Concord Road London ON N6G 3H9, Or
    • Online – You’ll be sent routine for each day.
  • Formats: 3-Class Series
  • Batches: One batch in the month it is offered.
  • Days & Time:
    • Group Sessions: Wednesdays, from 4:45 PM – 5:45 PM, or
    • Private Sessions: By appointment
  • Cost:
    • Group Sessions: $150 for all 3 group sessions (+HST), or
    • Private Sessions: $499 for all 3 private sessions (+HST) 
  • Commitment:
    • A firm commitment to complete the program without missing any class (except in an emergency).
    • At the end of the one month program, incorporate the techniques learned in your practice. You may also sign-up for another month. Continue routine Yoga classes if you are already coming, or join classes at SAVY Studio.
  • Components of Program:
    • Asana (physical postures/stretching)
    • Pranayama (breathing techniques)
    • Meditation
    • Self Marma Massage of important Marma Bindus
    • Nada
    • Mudra
    • Pearls of Ancient Wisdom

The same program is also taught on one-on-one basis and online.

Please book your appointment for ‘Meet and Greet’.

Please check the exact schedule and time below.

Through demonstration, discussion and experiential movement, you will gain key understanding of proper posture and how to keep your body safe. As common sense dictates, one can function properly only if one is disease-free and is in a healthy state of body, mind and spirit. So, for us, your health and disease-free state comes first of all. We firmly believe Yoga is much beyond mere gymnastics and sauna!

London Yoga Classes at SAVY bring you the taste, values and expertise of the true traditional Ashtanga and Vinyasa Yoga from India. Inspired adherence to eight pillars or steps of yoga bestow one with a calm mind and fit body and lead one towards attaining moksha or liberation for an emancipated life. In more physical or materialistic  terms, Yoga is more than capable of keeping one physically and mentally fit and disease-free. It has become the new hot and favored way to sweat it out. Yoga Fundamentals is a step in that direction.

Established benefits of Yoga:

  • Improved General Health
  • Longevity
  • Anxiety Relief
  • Stronger Bones
  • Healthier Heart
  • Healthy Weight
  • Lower Stress Levels
  • Increased Flexibility
  • Lower Blood Pressure
  • Improved Lung Capacity
  • Improved Brain Function
  • Greater Sense of Balance
  • Better mind-body connexion
  • Better Sexual Function  & Libido
  • Lower Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetics
  • Relief from Chronic Back Pain and Neck Pain
  • Better over-all quality of life & much more…

The salient features of London Yoga Classes of SAVY Healing Yoga are:

  • Comprehensive, authentic, world class teaching and knowledge-base in all aspects of Yoga
  • Authentic Ashtanaga and Vinyasa Yoga training based on true, traditional Yoga from India
  • Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhyana, Kriyas. Chakras, Kundalini Awakening, Shatkarma, Marma, Mantra etc
  • Clear, concise, to-the-point instruction and individualized care
  • One of the most qualified, experienced, international faculty, well-trained in India with excellent teaching skills
  • Yoga School with highest ranking of RYS 200 and RYS 300 – we train yoga teachers up to the highest rank
  • Yoga Therapy services for all diseases available
  • Wonderful, knowledgeable, stable, regular, supportive, warm, welcoming yoga community
  • Unique, specialized yoga classes – Sukshma Yoga, Vinyasa Yoga, Deep Stretch Yoga, Yoga for Face, Meditation Classes, Sun and Moon Salutations, Pranayama etc
  • Workshops on interesting Yoga topics from time to time
  • Delve deep into the field of Yoga – Keep learning and sharing knowledge
  • Suitable time of classes
  • Small size of even group classes
  • Small Class Yoga for smaller groups
  • Private sessions also available
  • Decent studio  and studio setting – enjoy the character and warmth of the Victorian heritage building
  • Authentic Yoga at reasonable rates

Learn all that directly under expert guidance of one of the most qualified faculty in the world! Your Yoga Teacher Trainer – Dr Jitender K Sahdev, E-RYT 500, RCYT, RPYT, D.Sc., Ph.D.,MD, MBBS, Fellow in Surgery and Surgical Oncology, is one of the most accomplished, qualified and experienced Yoga Therapist /Yoga Teacher in the world. A Surgeon by profession from India, he utilizes Yoga as a complementary therapy for optimizing the health and wellness of his participants and for easing symptoms of pain and tightness associated with disease. He trained under doyens of Yoga in India for almost four decades. He is a Yoga Therapist in Canada.

Please check the full schedule of classes through London Yoga Classes page and fill up your Registration and Waiver Form from the page.

Sign up today and live life to your full potential.

Book your spot today!

Contact Us

 

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